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General Review Article

Recent Developments in Medicinal Chemistry of Allosteric Activators of Human Glucokinase for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Therapeutics

[ Vol. 26 , Issue. 21 ]


Ajmer S. Grewal, Viney Lather*, Neha Charaya, Neelam Sharma, Sukhbir Singh and Visvaldas Kairys   Pages 2510 - 2552 ( 43 )


Background: Glucokinase (GK), a cytoplasmic enzyme catalyzes the metabolism of glucose to glucose- 6-phosphate with the help of ATP and aids in the controlling of blood glucose levels within the normal range in humans. In pancreatic β-cells, it plays a chief role by controlling the glucose-stimulated secretion of insulin and in liver hepatocyte cells, it controls the metabolism of carbohydrates. GK acts as a promising drug target for the pharmacological treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as it plays an important role in the control of carbohydrate metabolism.

Methods: Data used for this review was based on the search from several science databases as well as various patent databases. The main data search terms used were allosteric GK activators, diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes, glucokinase, glucokinase activators and human glucokinase.

Results: This article discusses an overview of T2DM, the biology of GK, the role of GK in T2DM, recent updates in the development of small molecule GK activators reported in recent literature, mechanism of action of GK activators and their clinical status.

Conclusion: GK activators are the novel class of pharmacological agents that enhance the catalytic activity of GK enzyme and display their antihyperglycemic effects. Broad diversity of chemical entities including benzamide analogues, carboxamides, acrylamides, benzimidazoles, quinazolines, thiazoles, pyrimidines, pyridines, orotic acid amides, amino acid derivatives, amino phosphates and urea derivatives have been synthesized in past two decades as potent allosteric activators of GK. Presently, the pharmaceutical companies and researchers are focusing on the design and development of liver-selective GK activators for preventing the possible adverse effects associated with GK activators for the long-term treatment of T2DM.


Allosteric, antidiabetic, diabetes mellitus, GK activators, Glucokinase (GK), type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, Jan Nayak Ch. Devi Lal Memorial College of Pharmacy, Haryana, Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, Department of Bioinformatics, Institute of Biotechnology, Vilnius University, Vilnius

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