Joanna Skorko-Glonek, Dorota Zurawa-Janicka, Tomasz Koper, Miroslaw Jarzab, Donata Figaj, Przemyslaw Glaza and Barbara Lipinska Pages 977 - 1009 ( 33 )
The HtrA proteases degrade damaged proteins and thus control the quality of proteins and protect cells against the consequences of various stresses; they also recognize specific protein substrates and in this way participate in regulation of many pathways. In many pathogenic bacteria strains lacking the HtrA function lose virulence or their virulence is decreased. This is due to an increased vulnerability of bacteria to stresses or to a decrease in secretion of virulence factors. In some cases HtrA is secreted outside the cell, where it promotes the pathogen’s invasiveness. Thus, the HtrA proteases of bacterial pathogens are attractive targets for new therapeutic approaches aimed at inhibiting their proteolytic activity. The exported HtrAs are considered as especially promising targets for chemical inhibitors. In this review, we characterize the model prokaryotic HtrAs and HtrAs of pathogenic bacteria, focusing on their role in virulence.
In humans HtrA1, HtrA2(Omi) and HtrA3 are best characterized. We describe their role in promoting cell death in stress conditions and present evidence indicating that HtrA1 and HtrA2 function as tumor suppressors, while HtrA2 stimulates cancer cell death induced by chemotherapeutic agents. We characterize the HtrA2 involvement in pathogenesis of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, and briefly describe the involvement of human HtrAs in other diseases. We hypothesize that stimulation of the HtrA’s proteolytic activity might be beneficial in therapies of cancer and neurodegenerative disorders, and discuss the possibilities of modulating HtrA proteolytic activity considering the present knowledge about their structure and regulation.
HtrA of pathogenic bacteria, E. coli HtrA, HtrA in cancer, HtrA in neurodegenerative diseases, HtrA activity regulation, HtrA and cell death, HtrA targeting.
Department of Biochemistry, University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-952 Gdansk, Poland.