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Review Article

Inhibition of Bacterial Biofilm Formation by Phytotherapeutics with Focus on Overcoming Antimicrobial Resistance

[ Vol. 26 , Issue. 24 ]


Yun Su Jang and Tímea Mosolygó*   Pages 2807 - 2816 ( 10 )


Bacteria within biofilms are more resistant to antibiotics and chemical agents than planktonic bacteria in suspension. Treatment of biofilm-associated infections inevitably involves high dosages and prolonged courses of antimicrobial agents; therefore, there is a potential risk of the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Due to the high prevalence of AMR and its association with biofilm formation, investigation of more effective anti-biofilm agents is required.

From ancient times, herbs and spices have been used to preserve foods, and their antimicrobial, anti-biofilm and anti-quorum sensing properties are well known. Moreover, phytochemicals exert their anti-biofilm properties at sub-inhibitory concentrations without providing the opportunity for the emergence of resistant bacteria or harming the host microbiota.

With increasing scientific attention to natural phytotherapeutic agents, numerous experimental investigations have been conducted in recent years. The present paper aims to review the articles published in the last decade in order to summarize a) our current understanding of AMR in correlation with biofilm formation and b) the evidence of phytotherapeutic agents against bacterial biofilms and their mechanisms of action. The main focus has been put on herbal anti-biofilm compounds tested to date in association with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and food-borne pathogens (Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli).


Phytotherapy, anti-biofilm, anti-quorum sensing, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, essential oil.


Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged

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