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Inflammation in Ischemic Stroke Subtypes

[ Vol. 18 , Issue. 28 ]

Author(s):

Antonino Tuttolomondo, Domenico Di Raimondo, Rosaria Pecoraro, Valentina Arnao, Antonio Pinto and Giuseppe Licata   Pages 4289 - 4310 ( 22 )

Abstract:


Determining the cause of stroke does influence choices for management. categorization of subtypes of ischemic stroke has had considerable study, but definitions are hard to formulate and their application for diagnosis in an individual patient is often problematic. Cerebral ischemia initiates a complex cascade of events at genomic, molecular, and cellular levels, and inflammation is important in this cascade. In 1993 for For the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST), Adams et al] conducted a placebo-controlled, randomized, blinded study of the low-molecular-weight heparinoid given to patients within 24 hours after stroke and developed a system for diagnosis of subtype of ischemic stroke that uses components of existing diagnostic schemes. The type of acute ischemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST classification: 1) Large Artery AtheroSclerosis (LAAS); 2) CardioEmbolic Infarct (CEI); 3) LACunar infarct (LAC); 4) stroke of Other Determined Etiology (ODE); 5) stroke of UnDetermined Etiology (UDE) (see Fig. (1)). On the basis of pathophysiologic differences of each stroke subtype it’s possible to hypothesize a different pattern of immuno-inflammatory activation in relation of ischemic stroke subtype. A nonspecific systemic inflammatory response occurs after both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, either as part of the process of brain damage or in response to complications such as deep venous thrombosis. Several studies have reported that higher levels of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are associated with worse outcome after ischemic stroke.

Our group reported that patients with cardioembolic subtype showed significantly higher median plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β whereas the lacunar subtype showed significantly lower median plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. Our findings underlined the significant association was noted between the severity of neurological deficit at admission, the diagnostic subtype and some inflammatory variables.

Keywords:

Stroke, inflammation, cytokines, cerebral ischemia, inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), TNF-α, hemorrhagic stroke, cardioembolic subtype

Affiliation:

Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Italy.



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