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Review Article

Extracellular Vesicles as Therapeutics for Brain Injury and Disease

[ Vol. 25 , Issue. 33 ]


Dinesh Upadhya* and Ashok K. Shetty   Pages 3500 - 3505 ( 6 )


Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are gaining tremendous importance in comprehending central nervous system (CNS) function and treating neurological disorders because of their role in intercellular communication and reparative processes, and suitability as drug delivery vehicles. Since EVs have lipid membranes, they cross the blood-brain barrier easily and communicate with target neurons and glia even deep inside the brain. EVs from various sources have been isolated, characterized, and tailored for promoting beneficial effects in conditions, such as brain injury and disease. Particularly, EVs isolated from mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells have shown promise for alleviating brain dysfunction after injury or disease. Such properties of stem cell-derived EVs have great importance for clinical applications, as EV therapy can avoid several concerns typically associated with cell therapy. This minireview confers the competence of EVs for improving brain function by modulating CNS injury and disease.


Brain injury, extracellular vesicles, exosomes, mesenchymal stem cells, neural stem cells, neurodegenerative diseases.


Centre for Molecular Neurosciences, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, College Station, TX

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